Reemergence of Cholera in Haiti

To the Editor:

Cholera was absent from Haiti till an inadvertent introduction by United Nations safety forces in October 2010. The following epidemic sickened 820,000 folks and triggered 9792 reported deaths.1 The final confirmed cholera case in Haiti was recorded in January 2019, and in February 2022, cholera was declared to have been eradicated in Haiti.2 In late September 2022, a brand new outbreak started in Port-au-Prince and quickly expanded to incorporate 11,953 suspected instances by late November, greater than 1000 of which had been confirmed by tradition.3 We carried out a genomic and phenotypic evaluation of the Vibrio cholerae remoted from a stool specimen obtained on September 30, 2022, from an index affected person — a baby who offered with watery diarrhea and extreme dehydration — to start to deal with the origins of the epidemic.

The 2022 V. cholerae isolate shares phenotypes with the 2010 outbreak pressure. Each strains are V. cholerae serogroup O1 (El Tor biotype) of the Ogawa serotype and have related antimicrobial resistance profiles, together with resistance to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole and low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin (Desk S1 within the Supplementary Appendix, accessible with the total textual content of this letter at This resistance profile is constant amongst 130 isolates from the present outbreak, which means that the pressure that was remoted from the index affected person is consultant of the continued epidemic.

Phylogenetic Tree of Vibrio cholerae from the Seventh Cholera Pandemic.

Proven is a phylogenetic tree of nonrecombinogenic areas from 1270 strains of V. cholerae O1, primarily from the present cholera pandemic, which is the seventh cholera pandemic in historical past. The dimensions represents single-nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. The inset exhibits an enlarged picture of the V. cholerae clade from the 2022 outbreak in Haiti, together with current isolates from Asia and Mexico.

To decipher the connection between the present outbreak pressure and different toxigenic O1 El Tor strains from the continued seventh pandemic of cholera, we sequenced the isolate obtained on September 30, 2022, together with 4 isolates obtained in 2021 and 2022 from Dhaka, Bangladesh (Desk S2). Phylogenetic evaluation of greater than 1200 isolates revealed that the 2022 Haiti isolate was intently associated to the 2010 Nepal isolate that was the origin of the preliminary outbreak. The 2022 isolate belongs to a subclade of Haiti V. cholerae isolates that originated in 2013 in the course of the earlier epidemic and is divergent from 2013 strains from Mexico that had been thought to have unfold from Haiti, in addition to from at present circulating Bangladesh isolates. Haiti isolates from 2022 and 2010 have equivalent ctxB (ctxB7) and different virulence elements (Desk S3) and produce related portions of cholera toxin (Determine 1).

These analyses counsel that the reemergence of cholera in Haiti in 2022 was triggered, at the very least partly, by a descendant of the V. cholerae pressure that triggered the 2010 epidemic. Nonetheless, no instances of cholera had been confirmed between 2019 and 2022, regardless of ongoing surveillance. A number of explanations for the recrudescence of this pressure are doable. The primary is that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 endured in Haiti by subclinical infections in people and has recurred within the context of waning inhabitants immunity coupled with a disaster in lack of unpolluted water and sanitation. One other nonexclusive risk is that this V. cholerae pressure has endured in environmental reservoirs. Lastly, as a result of the 2010 outbreak in Haiti was finally transmitted to different nations in Latin America,4 a 3rd potential clarification is that the present pressure might have been reintroduced to Haiti from a close-by nation; nevertheless, this clarification is much less possible than the others, given the phylogenetic proof and the absence of current cholera instances within the area. These findings, together with the resurgence of cholera in a number of components of the world5 regardless of accessible instruments to combat it, counsel that cholera management and prevention efforts should be redoubled.

Daniel H. F. Rubin, A.B.
Franz G. Zingl, Ph.D.
Deborah R. Leitner, Ph.D.
Brigham and Girls’s Hospital, Boston, MA

Ralph Ternier, M.D.
Zanmi Lasante, Croix-des-Bouquets, Haiti

Valusnor Compere, B.S.
Samson Marseille, M.D.
Laboratoire Nationwide de Santé Publique, Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Damien Slater, Ph.D.
Jason B. Harris, M.D., M.P.H.
Massachusetts Normal Hospital, Boston, MA

Fahima Chowdhury, M.B., B.S., M.P.H.
Firdausi Qadri, Ph.D.
Worldwide Centre for Diarrheal Illness Analysis, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Jacques Boncy, M.D.
Laboratoire Nationwide de Santé Publique, Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Louise C. Ivers, M.D., M.P.H.
Massachusetts Normal Hospital, Boston, MA
[email protected]

Matthew Ok. Waldor, M.D., Ph.D.
Brigham and Girls’s Hospital, Boston, MA
[email protected]

Supported by grants from the Nationwide Institutes of Well being (R01AI-042347, to Dr. Waldor; F30AI160911-01 and T32GM007753, to Mr. Rubin; R01HD102540, to Dr. Harris; and R01AI099243, to Dr. Ivers) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (to Dr. Waldor).

Disclosure varieties supplied by the authors can be found with the total textual content of this letter at

This letter was printed on November 30, 2022, at

Mr. Rubin and Dr. Zingl contributed equally to this letter.

  1. 1. World Well being Group. Cholera — Haiti. October 12, 2022 (

  2. 2. Haïti Ministère de la Communication. 4 Février 2019–4 février 2022 — trois (3) ans SANS CHOLÉRA en Haïti. February 5, 2022 (

  3. 3. Haïti Ministère de Lasanté Publique et de la Inhabitants. Situtation Épidémiologique du Choléra, 27 Novembre 2022, Haïti. November 27, 2022 (

  4. 4. Dorman MJ, Domman D, Poklepovich T, et al. Genomics of the Argentinian cholera epidemic elucidate the contrasting dynamics of epidemic and endemic Vibrio cholerae. Nat Commun 2020;11(1):49184918.

  5. 5. World Well being Group. Scarcity of cholera vaccines results in short-term suspension of two-dose technique, as instances rise worldwide. October 19, 2022 (–as-cases-rise-worldwide).

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